Что такое минилекс и как с ним работать

Полиглот Эрик Гуннемарк разработал для начинающих специальный словарь – минилекс. Это набор слов, чаще других встречающихся в речи.

Лексика
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Изучение английского языка требует усилий и времени. Как ускорить процесс? С чего начинать?

На эти вопросы частично ответил Эрик Гуннемарк. Он разработал специальную методику, в которой обобщил свой опыт и предложил правила для ускоренного изучения иностранных языков. Он же является автором минилекса.

Что такое минилекс

Приступая к освоению языка, новички испытывают трудности. Они не знают какими принципами руководствоваться и в какой последовательности учить темы. Гуннемарк разработал для начинающих специальный словарь – минилекс. Это набор слов, чаще других встречающихся в речи.

Автор определил их количество на каждом этапе изучения: от порогового уровня (400-500 слов) до повседневного общения с иностранцем (800 слов).

Полиглот из Швеции Эрик В. Гуннемарк известен как автор пособия «Искусство изучать языки». Им разработаны обучающие приёмы, рассчитанные на начинающих. Полиглот составил перечень слов и выражений – «Минилекс» и «Минифраз», необходимых для элементарного общения. Он дал практические рекомендации и предоставил примеры, упрощающие процесс обучения.

Методика Гуннемарка

Методика предполагает освоение языковых навыков с помощью заучивания 400-500 слов, составляющих «активный минимум», и около 130 фраз или речевых «штампов». Запомнив их, можно легко понимать и даже изъясняться на любом иностранном языке на базовом уровне.

В зависимости от словарного запаса, у человека появляется всё больше возможностей оперировать иностранным языком:

  • 400-500 слов – необходимая минимальная база;
  • 800-1000 – для нормального диалога, запас для чтения начального уровня;
  • 1500-2000 – активный словарный запас, каждодневное общение, запас для нормального чтения;
  • 3000-4000 – более-менее свободное чтение художественных произведений и новостных лент;
  • 8000 – полноценное и свободное общение;
  • 10 000-20 000 – словарный запас образованного западного гражданина.

Занятия по минилексу

Автор метода предлагает для развития языковых навыков использовать следующие упражнения:

  • Обучение. Называется предмет, изображенный на картинке, переводится и произносится вслух.
  • Чтение. К каждому прочитанному слову подбирается картинка.
  • Аудирование. В соответствии с услышанным подбирается изображение.
  • Написание. По картинке пишется слово, обозначающее изображение.

Для освоения лексического минимума предлагаются такие темы: люди, время, действия, эмоции, объекты, направления, дни недели и другие повседневные слова.

Обучение по этой методике поможет получить прочную базу знаний, которая обеспечит дальнейшее совершенствование языка. Важно не просто заучивать, а составлять свои простые предложения и диалоги со словами из минилекса.

Минилекс. Список слов.

Слово / Перевод Пример
Friday
пятница
  • Let's go swimming on Friday.
I
я
  • I don't like winter.
  • Mary and I will do the cooking.
Monday
понедельник
  • Let's meet for lunch on Monday.
Saturday
суббота
  • See you on Saturday.
Sunday
воскресенье
  • Are you doing anything nice on Sunday?
Thursday
четверг
  • I had lunch with Joe on Thursday.
Tuesday
вторник
  • We are leaving on Tuesday.
Wednesday
среда
  • This year, Christmas falls on a Wednesday.
a little
немного
  • We managed to save a little money.
  • The whole situation makes me a little nervous.
  • You should rest a little.
about
о , около
  • He told me about your problem.
about
примерно
  • I'll meet you at about 8 p.m.
accident
несчастный случай , случайность , происшествие , авария
  • If you have an accident, you will need to phone your insurance company immediately.
according to
согласно , в соответствии с
  • We should try to play the game according to the rules.
afraid
испуганный
  • I was afraid that you'd miss the flight.
after
после , после того
  • Go straight ahead and then turn right after the library.
  • I went for a swim after breakfast.
again
снова , опять
  • You'll have to tell me again – I wasn't listening.
against
против
  • She spoke against the decision to close the college.
  • The plants must be protected against frost.
ago
тому назад
  • Your brother phoned a few minutes ago.
air
воздух
  • She breathed in the cold air.
all
весь , всё
  • All animals have to eat in order to live.
  • Have you drunk it all?
  • It's very kind of you to come all the way to meet me.
almost
почти
  • It’s almost a year since she died.
alone
одинокий , один
  • Mary was alone in the house.
already
уже
  • I have already finished the project.
also
так же , тоже , также
  • I'm cold, and I'm also hungry and tired.
although
хотя
  • Although she's got a good job now, she still complains.
always
всегда
  • My parents and I do not always agree.
and
и
  • Everyone was singing and dancing.
angry
сердитый , рассерженный , злой
  • He is very angry about the way he's been treated.
answer
ответить , отвечать
  • You haven't answered my question.
arrive
прибыть , прибывать
  • What time does your plane arrive?
ask
спрашивать , спросить
  • I wondered who had given her the ring but was afraid to ask.
  • If you need any help, just ask.
at
в , у
  • We'll meet you at the entrance.
  • There's a meeting at 2.30 this afternoon.
at home
дома
  • Are you at home?
at least
по меньшей мере
  • We are expecting to at least double our money.
  • At least no one can accuse me of hiding the truth.
at the bottom
внизу
  • The date and time are shown at the bottom of your screen.
  • These creatures live at the bottom of the sea.
autumn
осень
  • We haven't heard from him since last autumn.
bad
плохой
  • The weather was really bad – it rained all week.
  • She was feeling stressed after a bad day at work.
bag
сумка
  • I have a big collection of bags at home.
beautiful
привлекательный , красивый , прекрасный
  • Their mother was a very beautiful woman.
because
потому что
  • We went by bus because it was cheaper.
  • I couldn’t phone you because I hadn’t got your number.
because of
из-за
  • The game was cancelled because of the snow.
become
становиться , стать
  • The sky became dark.
before
до , до того , перед
  • I did a few morning exercises before breakfast.
  • We moved to London before the war.
begin
начинать , начинаться , начать
  • She felt her life was just beginning.
  • He began shouting abuse at them.
behind
позади , за , сзади
  • The teacher was standing behind me, looking over my shoulder.
believe
верить
  • Scientists believe a cure for the disease will be discovered soon.
best
самый лучший , наилучший
  • You're my best friend, John!
better
лучше
  • Why was it that everyone else did better than me in the exams?
between
между
  • The office will be closed between Christmas and New Year.
big
большой
  • The company faces big problems.
black
чёрный
  • The zebra is a wild African horse with black and white stripes.
blue
голубой , синий
  • He looked at her with his pale blue eyes.
book
книга
  • What book would you like to read during the flight?
boring
скучный
  • The movie we watched yesterday was extremely boring.
borrow
взять в долг , занять , позаимствовать
  • Can I borrow your pencil?
both
оба
  • Both my parents are doctors.
boy
мальчик
  • As a young boy, my father used to walk three miles to school.
bread
хлеб
  • Do you bake your own bread?
bring
приносить , приводить , привезти , доставлять
  • Bring a coat in case it turns cold.
brother
брат
  • My brother's name is Brian.
but
но
  • Anna’s a highly intelligent girl, but she’s rather lazy.
buy
покупать , купить
  • I need to buy some new clothes.
calm
спокойный
  • An hour after our quarrel, I started to feel calm.
can
мочь , уметь
  • She could play the violin by the time she was six.
car
автомобиль , машина
  • She got into her car and drove away.
certain
убеждённый
  • I’m not absolutely certain, but I think I’m right.
change
поменять , изменить , менять , обменять , заменить
  • Some things never change.
  • After a few days the weather changed dramatically.
cheap
дешёвый
  • People were drinking cheap wine from plastic cups.
  • People should have access to cheap, fresh food.
check
проверять
  • Always check your spelling.
  • I think he's gone home – I'll just check.
cheerful
весёлый
  • Stephen was a cheerful, affectionate child.
child
ребёнок
  • All of our children are grown and married.
city
город
  • New and better hotels are springing up in most of Russia's major cities.
clean
чистый
  • Go and put on a clean shirt.
clear
ясный , понятный , чёткий
  • It was very clear that something was worrying him.
close
закрыть , закрывать
  • Close the door quietly behind you.
clothes
одежда
  • Carmen wears the most beautiful clothes.
cold
холодный
  • The water was too cold for a shower.
collect
собирать , коллекционировать , забирать , собрать
  • When did you start collecting dolls?
colour
цвет
  • Blue is my favourite colour.
come
приходить , приезжать , приехать , наступить , прийти
  • A tall woman in black was coming across the lawn.
  • We came to the conclusion that she must be telling the truth.
  • The new changes will come into effect next month.
common
обычный
  • It was common for children to play in the street.
completely
совершенно , полностью , абсолютно
  • Doctors said the operation was completely successful.
continue
продолжить , продолжать
  • He continued typing while he spoke.
country
страна
  • Ministers from four countries met today in Washington.
cry
лить слёзы , плакать
  • I could hear someone crying outside.
damage
вред
  • Damage to the building could take six months to repair.
dangerous
опасный
  • Ashley is playing a dangerous game, pretending to support both parties.
daughter
дочь
  • Liz and Phil have a daughter and three sons.
day
день
  • We're going away for five days.
dead
мёртвый
  • The police don’t know whether she’s alive or dead.
dear
дорогой , милый
  • She is a very dear friend of mine.
different
разный , непохожий , отличающийся , различный
  • Six different boys asked me to dance.
difficult
сложный , тяжёлый , трудный
  • Choosing the winner was a difficult task.
dirty
грязный
  • I felt dirty, hungry, and cold.
do
делать
  • I haven't seen you in a while – how are you doing ?
down
вниз
  • Someone pushed him and he fell down the stairs.
  • She was walking down the street.
drink
пить
  • He drank three glasses of water.
drop
уронить , ронять
  • He dropped a few coins into my hand.
dry
сухой
  • Is the grass dry enough to cut?
during
в течение , во время
  • During the summer season, all the hotels are full in our city
early
ранний
  • The plants flower in early spring.
earth
земля
  • They felt the earth shaking beneath their feet.
east
восток
  • Her home is in the east of France.
east of
к востоку от
  • They live in the east of the city.
easy
лёгкий , простой , нетрудный
  • Finding somewhere to live in London isn't easy.
eat
кушать , есть
  • We sat on the grass and ate our sandwiches.
eight
восемь
  • They have eight children.
eighteen
восемнадцать
  • She's turning eighteen next month.
eighth
восьмой
  • He came eighth in the race.
eighty
восемьдесят
  • My granny was born eighty years ago.
eleven
одиннадцать
  • There're only eleven rooms in the hotel.
eleventh
одиннадцатый
  • He spent his eleventh birthday with parents.
empty
пустой , свободный
  • His pockets were empty.
enough
достаточно
  • Are there enough desserts for everyone?
especially
особенно
  • It was a very cold house, especially in winter.
evening
вечер
  • Thank you for such an enjoyable evening.
every
каждый , любой
  • Every bedroom has its own private bathroom.
everybody
всё
  • Everybody likes birthday cake.
everything
всё
  • Everything's done by computer nowadays.
everywhere
повсюду , везде
  • His kids play everywhere they can.
exactly
именно , точно , конкретно
  • The garden is exactly the same as it was 10 years ago.
except
кроме
  • All the team were there except Eddie, who was ill.
expensive
дорогостоящий , дорогой
  • My best friend always wears expensive clothes.
eye
глаз
  • I fixed my eye on the clock.
fairly
вполне , довольно , достаточно , весьма
  • We went to the theatre fairly often.
  • He enjoys fairly good health.
fall
падать , снижаться , опускаться , упасть
  • Ann’s just fallen downstairs and hurt her back.
  • The temperature has been falling steadily all day.
fall
осень
  • Next fall we'll be back in New York.
family
семья
  • A family with two children live next door.
famous
известный
  • He dreamed of becoming a famous footballer.
fast
быстрый
  • Simon loves fast cars.
father
отец , папа
  • My father taught me to drive.
feel
чувствовать
  • I was feeling cheerful when they came.
fetch
принести
  • He went to fetch his coat.
fifteen
пятнадцать
  • They live about fifteen miles away.
fifth
пятый
  • Tomorrow is the fifth of September.
fifty
пятьдесят
  • They were doing fifty miles an hour.
finally
наконец-то , наконец , в конце концов
  • We finally arrived home and went to bed.
  • After months of looking he finally found a job.
find
находить , обнаружить , найти
  • Have you already found the keys?
finish
заканчивать , закончить
  • I've nearly finished my work.
first
первый
  • This is the first car I've ever owned.
first
сначала
  • Speak to me first, before you do anything.
five
пять
  • There're five fingers on each hand.
flat
квартира
  • I would like to ask you a few questions about the flat.
food
еда
  • Prices of food and clothing have risen dramatically in recent years.
foot
ступня , нога
  • Mary slid her feet into her sandals.
for
для , в течение
  • I've been waiting for an hour.
foreign
иностранный
  • Working in a foreign country takes some time to get used to.
forget
забывать , забыть
  • I've forgotten her phone number.
  • She forgot her sunglasses.
  • Try to forget about him.
  • I think we can forget the idea of a holiday this year.
forty
сорок
  • He looks about forty.
four
четыре
  • Most animals have four legs.
fourteen
четырнадцать
  • Her baby is fourteen months old.
fourth
четвертый
  • We came fourth in the quiz.
free
бесплатный , свободный
  • There is plenty of free parking.
friend
друг , подруга
  • She's visiting friends in Scotland.
from
из , от
  • The watch was a present from his daughter.
  • She's from Russia.
full
полный
  • He turned the radio on full volume.
funny
забавный , смешной
  • Wouldn't it be funny if we played a trick on him?
get
получать , становиться , доставать , добираться , получить
  • Ross's father got a new job.
  • It's getting late – I have to go.
  • You need to get your hair cut.
  • How long does it take to get from London to Leeds?
girl
девочка
  • What a pretty little girl!
give
давать
  • Could you give me that pen?
glad
довольный , радостный
  • I'm so glad you're here!
go
идти , ехать , ходить , ездить , пойти
  • Where did Sue go?
  • None of her brothers went to college.
  • Where did all their money go?
go to bed
идти спать , ложиться спать
  • She goes to bed very early.
good
хорошо , хороший
  • Did you have a good time at the party?
gradually
постепенно
  • She gradually built up a reputation as a successful lawyer.
great
великий , огромный , большой
  • He was in a great hurry.
  • This is a great opportunity to raise a lot of money.
green
зелёный
  • The first bright green leaves were showing.
ground
почва
  • I fell to the ground.
  • People were sitting on the ground in small groups.
half an hour
полчаса
  • I’ll call you back within the next half an hour.
hand
рука , кисть
  • He was holding a mug of coffee in his left hand.
happy
счастливый , весёлый
  • The children seem very happy at new school.
hard
тяжёлый , твёрдый
  • It is too hard to answer these questions.
have
иметь , обладать
  • They have a house in Hanover Square.
  • They have got two kids of their own.
have fun
веселиться
  • We haven't had such fun for years.
he
он
  • I told William, but he didn't believe me.
  • Everyone has a right to say what he thinks.
head
голова
  • She had bruise on the side of her head.
hear
слышать
  • Do you hear the birds singing outside?
heart
сердце
  • I could hear his heart beating.
heavy
крупный , тяжёлый
  • The bag was heavier than I'd expected.
help
помогать , помочь
  • If you are finding that difficult, I could help you.
her
ей , ею , ее , ее
  • Has anyone seen her?
here
здесь , вот , тут
  • Wait here. I'll be back in a minute.
  • We've lived here for over 20 years.
high
высокий
  • The fence is too high to climb over.
him
ему , его , им
  • Luke wants me to marry him.
  • Each patient should receive the treatment that suits him best.
his
его
  • She was attracted by his smile.
hold
обнимать , держать
  • He sat beside me and held me tight.
home
дом , жилище
  • We go to a school close to our home.
hope
надеяться
  • I just hope she's pleasant to him on his birthday.
hot
горячий , жаркий
  • Cook the fish under a hot grill for 5 minutes.
hour
час
  • She checked on the children every hour.
house
дом , здание
  • I would like to rent a house for my summer vacation.
how
Как?
  • How do you spell your last name?
how many
Сколько?
  • How many students are taking the test?
how much
Сколько? , Сколько стоит?
  • How much water is at home?
  • How much was that CD player of yours?
hungry
голодный
  • We were cold, tired, and hungry.
husband
муж
  • She met her husband through a dating agency.
if
если
  • If we miss the last bus, we'll have to walk home.
ill
больной
  • He's been ill for a couple of weeks.
immediately
немедленно
  • I immediately recognized his voice.
  • She decided to leave immediately.
important
важный
  • Music was an important part of the life of the community.
impossible
невозможный
  • We were faced with an impossible task.
in
в , внутри
  • He had left his passport in his coat pocket.
in front of
перед , перед чем-то
  • There is a shop in front of the theatre.
in the morning
утром
  • I listen to the radio in the morning.
interesting
интересный
  • She's an interesting new writer.
into
в , внутрь
  • She got into her car and drove away.
  • Pour the mixture into a large saucepan.
it
он , она , оно , это
  • I can't find my ticket. I think I must have lost it.
  • It's nice to be home again.
  • It rained in the night.
  • Hello, it's me, Jack.
it hurts
болит
  • Tell me where it hurts.
its
его , ее , свой
  • The child was calling for its mother.
joke
шутить
  • They joked and laughed as they looked at the photos.
journey
путешествие
  • We had a long journey ahead of us.
just
только что , только , просто
  • Mum's just gone down to the shops.
  • I can't come now. I'm just putting the children to bed.
keep
сохранять , держать , хранить
  • Keep still while I brush your hair.
  • I think we should keep this one and sell the others.
  • Read this letter carefully, and keep it in a safe place.
key
ключ
  • Where are my car keys?
kind
добрый
  • She was very kind to me when the children were ill.
know
знать , узнавать
  • 'Have they arrived yet?' 'I don't know.'
  • Some of you may know Ivan already.
lady
дама
  • I remember her as an elegant lady.
  • She doesn’t talk like a lady.
language
язык
  • Linguistics is the study of language and how people use it.
last
последний , прошлый
  • His next book will be even better than his last.
  • Tonight's performance is the last in a series.
late
поздний
  • She phoned to say she’d be late.
laugh at
смеяться над
  • The other kids laughed at his haircut.
learn
учить , узнавать , учиться , научиться , изучить
  • What did you learn at school today?
leave
уезжать , покидать , уходить
  • Our train to London leaves at five tomorrow.
left
левый
  • He wore a wedding ring on his left hand.
lend
предоставлять , одалживать
  • The local library will lend books for a month without charge.
  • Joe lent this car to us for the weekend.
  • Then Max arrived to lend his assistance.
let
позволить
  • Her parents didn't let her go out yesterday.
letter
письмо , буква
  • Did you write a letter to your new pen friend?
lie
обманывать , врать , лгать
  • I suspect she lies about her age.
lie down
прилечь , лечь
  • He lay down on the bed and tried to relax.
life
жизнь
  • She devoted her life to helping others.
light
лёгкий , светлый , лёгкий , не тяжелый
  • The table is a lot lighter than it looks.
light
свет , огонь
  • The room gets a lot of light in the afternoons.
like
нравиться
  • Do you like my new hairstyle?
listen
слушать
  • What kind of music do you listen to?
live
жить , проживать
  • Paris is a nice place to live.
long
длинный , долгий
  • It's a long time since I saw Rachel.
look at
смотреть , смотреть на
  • He turned and looked at her.
look for
искать
  • We are looking for an assistant in a new business project.
lose
терять , проигрывать
  • Did Mike lose his job last year?
love
любить
  • We love each other, and we're going to get married.
  • She loved her children with all her heart.
low
низкий
  • There was a low bridge across the river.
  • The plane was very low.
man
мужчина
  • He is an ambitious young man!
many
много
  • I've been to their house many times.
married
женат
  • He's married to my older sister.
may
иметь разрешение , иметь возможность , возможно , можно
  • There may be an easier way of solving the problem.
  • May we come in now?
  • The bill may be paid by cheque or by credit card.
  • You may enter.
me
мне , меня , мной
  • I think Darren really likes me.
mean
значить , означать , иметь в виду
  • This English word means something different in German.
  • What do you mean by that remark?
meet
встречать , встречаться , встретить
  • I'll meet you in the bar later.
  • The two teams met last year in the final.
  • The two rivers meet just north of the town.
minute
минута
  • I'll meet you downstairs in ten minutes.
mistake
ошибка
  • I won't make the same mistake again!
money
деньги
  • No, I can't come – I haven't got any money.
month
месяц
  • I should try to finish my novel over the next few months.
more
больше
  • The stereos are more expensive in Japan than they are here.
  • You should come and visit us more often.
  • I should like to travel more.
morning
утро
  • What time did you get up this morning?
mother
мать , мама
  • My mother and father live in Rome.
mouth
рот
  • She opened her mouth to speak.
much
намного , много
  • It's a small car that doesn't use much fuel.
  • Do you travel much?
  • He doesn't seem to care much about the children 's education.
  • Things haven’t changed much.
my
мое , моя , мои , мой
  • I shut my eyes and thought about the sea.
name
имя , название
  • They used to call me all kinds of names at school.
near
рядом
  • I lived near the school.
necessary
необходимый
  • It was necessary for all students to register a week in advance.
need
нуждаться
  • You'll need some warm clothes for the winter.
never
никогда
  • I've never been in love before.
  • I waited, but she never came.
new
новый
  • They are going to build a new office block here.
news
новости
  • I'm afraid I've got some bad news.
newspaper
газета
  • I never read newspapers.
next
следующий
  • He said he was leaving for Rome the next day.
nice
милый , приятный
  • She's a nice girl.
night
ночь
  • It was a lovely starlit night.
nine
девять
  • They have nine grandchildren.
nineteen
девятнадцать
  • She is turning nineteen next month.
ninety
девяносто
  • My granny is ninety and she's still gorgeous.
ninth
девятый
  • They finished ninth in the competition.
  • About a ninth of the money raised is spent on administration.
no
нет , нет
  • No, I won't go there.
nobody
никто
  • Bill thinks that nobody understands him.
noise
шум , звук
  • Please will you stop making so much noise!
north
север
  • She grew up in the north of France.
  • How do you like living in the north?
not
не
  • I won't tell her.
  • I told you not to do that.
not yet
ещё нет , пока нет
  • I haven't seen him yet.
  • Have you read this book yet?
nothing
ничего
  • You were so focused, like there was nothing else.
nought
ноль
  • He's got several noughts on the end of his salary.
now
сейчас , теперь
  • Many people now own a smartphone.
of course
безусловно , конечно
  • "Can you help me?" "Of course."
often
часто
  • How often do you eat chocolate?
  • I've been swimming twice as often as I did last year.
old
старый
  • There's an old belief that animals can predict earthquakes.
on
на
  • We got on the train at Bournville.
on the left
слева
  • The cinema is on the left.
on the right
справа
  • His school is on the right.
once
однажды , один раз
  • I'm only going to say this once, so listen carefully.
  • Did you know that Dan was once a policeman?
one
один
  • They have one daughter and five sons.
  • How much does one kilo of potatoes cost?
one hundred
сто , сотня
  • We've driven one hundred miles in the last two hours.
  • We received hundreds of applications for the job.
one thousand
тысяча
  • I still have a thousand things to do.
only
только
  • It's only an idea, but I thought we could try it out.
  • The flowers grow wild only on the island of Maui.
open
открывать , открыть
  • Can you open this jam jar?
  • Open your books at page 25.
or
или
  • He's probably at lunch or in a meeting.
  • Which colour do you want – red, green, yellow, or blue?
other
другой
  • The report will be of interest to teachers and others in the education field.
  • I suggested a camping holiday, but Kerry had other ideas.
otherwise
иначе
  • I hope the weather improves. Otherwise, we'll have to cancel the picnic.
our
наш , наша , наши , наше
  • Today is a day we'll remember for the rest of our lives.
  • We're very proud of our Jack.
out
наружу , отсюда , вне
  • We went out into the garden.
  • He is out just now, visiting a patient.
  • She went out, slamming the door behind her.
  • I'll be out of town for a couple of weeks.
over
над
  • The Simpsons live in a flat over the shop.
page
страница
  • For information on hotels in Amsterdam, see page 20.
pain
боль
  • He heard Leo scream in pain.
paper
бумага
  • We had to show our papers at the security desk.
part
часть
  • It was a pretty boring class, but the part about using spreadsheets was quite useful.
pay
платить , заплатить , оплачивать
  • Let me pay for dinner.
  • Did Linda pay you for looking after her cats while she was away?
pen
ручка
  • Have you got a pen and paper?
pencil
карандаш
  • Here's my coloured pencil!
people
люди , народ
  • On this issue, government has failed to listen to the people.
perhaps
возможно , вероятно , может быть , пожалуй
  • You don't look well – perhaps you should go to the doctor.
person
человеческий , личность , человек
  • His person had been searched without legal authority.
picture
картина
  • I noticed a picture on the dining-room wall.
piece
кусок , часть , кусочек
  • I've used four pieces of paper already.
  • He divided the dough into four pieces.
place
место
  • I don't like crowded places.
play
играть
  • The children were playing football in the park.
pleased
довольный
  • Are you pleased with the way things went yesterday?
  • It took a long time to complete the work, but I'm very pleased with the results.
possible
возможный
  • The task will not be possible without access to the Internet.
price
цена , стоимость
  • They charge the same prices in all their restaurants.
probably
вероятно
  • You'll probably be gone by the time I get back.
promise
обещать
  • The police chief promised tougher action against young criminals.
  • This evening promises to be a lot of fun.
put
класть , положить
  • Put your book on the shelf.
question
вопрос
  • Why won't you answer my question?
quickly
быстро
  • Let me explain very quickly what I mean.
quite
довольно , весьма , вполне , очень
  • Are you quite sure you know what to do?
  • I was feeling quite tired after our walk.
  • I don't quite understand the problem.
read
читать
  • I read a few chapters of a book every night.
ready
готовый
  • We'll never be ready in time.
reason
причина
  • The police asked her the reason for her visit.
red
красный
  • She was wearing bright red lipstick.
relative
родственник
  • We spent the week visiting relatives.
remember
вспомнить , помнить
  • I can still remember every word of our conversation.
right
правый , правильный
  • Hold the bat in your right hand.
  • Is this the right way to the station?
road
дорога , путь , улица
  • All roads leading into the village are flooded.
room
комната , место
  • Annie ran out of the room.
sad
грустный , унылый , печальный
  • Reading our granny's letter made us all feel sad.
safe
сохранный , надежный , безопасный
  • Travelling by plane is much safer than driving your own car.
  • Will my car be safe if I park it in the street?
same
тот же самый , одинаковый , такой же
  • My twin sister and I have the same nose.
  • She was wearing exactly the same dress as I was.
satisfied
удовлетворенный
  • Honestly, some customers are never satisfied!
say
сказать , говорить , произносить , произнести
  • 'Pleased to meet you,' he said with a smile.
  • I think we should stop now. What do you say?
school
школа
  • It's the biggest school in the city.
second
второй
  • Is Carla her first or second child?
  • This is the second time I've had flu this winter.
see
видеть , посмотреть , взглянуть
  • Can you see John there?
sell
продавать , продать
  • They've already sold over two million copies of their record.
send
отправлять , посылать , присылать , послать
  • I sent the letters yesterday, so they should arrive today.
seven
семь
  • She has seven brothers.
seventeen
семнадцать
  • I'm nearly seventeen so I should be able to do what I want.
seventh
седьмой
  • She came seventh in a national poetry competition.
seventy
семьдесят
  • My first teacher is turning seventy this year.
several
несколько
  • The strike lasted for several days.
  • Ariel is one of his several nieces.
she
она
  • I was with Lisa when she bought her wedding dress.
  • She is my sister.
shop
магазин
  • Where can I find a gift shop?
short
низкий , короткий
  • Could you give us a short summary of what happened?
should
следовало бы
  • Parents should spend as much time with their children as possible.
  • What should be taught in our schools?
show
показывать , показать
  • Show me your tickets, sir.
shut
закрывать , запирать , закрываться , захлопнуть
  • Please shut the door behind you.
  • Let's shut the shop early tonight.
side
сторона
  • The railway ran along the north side of the valley.
since
с тех пор , с тех пор как
  • I've known Joanna since she was born.
  • Turkey has been a republic since 1923.
  • Everything has changed so much since last spring.
sing
петь
  • Malcolm likes singing in the bath.
sister
сестра
  • He has two brothers and two sisters.
six
шесть
  • Look for a bus with a number six on the front of it.
sixteen
шестнадцать
  • We have got sixteen people coming for lunch.
sixth
шестой
  • I have to return my library books on the sixth of July.
sixty
шестьдесят
  • She plans to retire at sixty.
slow
медленный
  • The first part of the film is very slow.
small
маленький
  • These shoes are too small for me.
so
такой , очень
  • The house is so beautiful.
  • Thank you for being so patient.
some
какой-нибудь , немного , некоторый
  • If you need more paper then just take some.
  • Some of you here have already met Imran.
  • Have some of this tea - it's very good.
somebody
кто-нибудь , кто-то
  • Somebody must have seen it happen.
  • You could give it to somebody else.
something
что-нибудь , что-то
  • There's something sharp in my shoe.
  • I could smell something burning.
sometimes
иногда
  • Sometimes it's so cold I don't even want to leave the house.
son
сын
  • My younger son is a doctor.
soon
скоро
  • If you don't leave soon, you're going to miss the train.
sort
сорт , вид , тип
  • What sort are you looking for?
  • He was asking us all sorts of questions about you.
sound
звук , звон
  • My car is making strange clicking sounds.
south
юг
  • Did you like living in the south?
  • Their business is in the south of the city.
speak
говорить
  • I phoned your office and spoke to your assistant.
  • There was a long pause before she spoke again.
  • Do you speak Chinese?
spring
весна
  • It's been a very wet spring.
stand
стоять
  • He apologized for standing on my foot.
stay
оставаться , держаться , останавливаться , жить
  • How long are you going to stay in Thailand?
still
тем не менее , всё ещё , ещё , всё же
  • We knew we wouldn't win the game, but it was still fantastic to play it!
stop
остановиться , остановить , прекращать
  • Stop at the cinema please.
strange
странный
  • When you arrive in a new country, everything seems strange.
street
улица
  • Walk along the high street and turn left.
strong
сильный
  • Are you strong enough to carry that heavy box?
stupid
бестолковый , глупый , дурацкий , тупой
  • Katy is too stupid to understand it.
such
такой , такая
  • They want a 10% pay rise – such is the scale of their latest demand.
suggest
предлагать , предложить , советовать
  • I suggest we have dinner first, and then watch the film.
suitcase
чемодан
  • I like travelling without suitcase not to waste time at the baggage reclaim area.
summer
лето
  • He spent the summer in Paris.
sun
солнце
  • We could feel the hot sun on our backs.
  • I can't see a thing. The sun's in my eyes.
surprise
сюрприз
  • There were few surprises at Wimbledon this year.
surprised
удивленный , удивлен
  • I'll be really surprised if he gets here on time.
take
брать , взять
  • Don't forget to take an extra pair of shoes.
  • I've decided not to take the job.
talk
разговаривать , болтать
  • My little girl has just started to talk.
tall
высокий
  • She's much taller than me.
tax
налог
  • Income tax payments are due on the 15th of April.
teach
обучать , преподавать , учить , научить
  • How long have you been teaching here?
teacher
учитель
  • We have a new French teacher at school.
ten
десять
  • Her father died ten years ago.
tenth
десятый
  • This is his tenth year of working for the company.
terrible
ужасный
  • I'm afraid there's been a terrible mistake.
than
чем , нежели
  • We don't want to do more than is necessary.
  • I'm taller than my dad.
that
тот , та , то
  • That's Jerry's car, over there.
their
их
  • Workers are afraid that they will lose their jobs.
  • Everyone has their own way of doing things.
them
им , ими , их
  • They've taken their families with them.
  • Someone phoned, but I told them to call back later.
then
потом , тогда , затем
  • I was working in the city then.
  • Just then, the lights went out.
there
там , здесь , туда
  • I left the boxes over there.
  • The museum is closed today. We'll go there tomorrow.
these
эти
  • Do you like these shoes?
they
они
  • I phoned her parents because I knew they were worried.
  • They are my cousins.
thing
вещь , предмет
  • I have a lot of things to do today.
think
думать
  • What do you think he wants?
third
третий
  • She came third in the competition.
thirteen
тринадцать
  • Some people think that thirteen is an unlucky number.
thirty
тридцать
  • She got married when she was thirty years old.
this
этот , эта , это
  • I've brought this book to show you.
those
те
  • Are those kids from our school?
three
три
  • School finishes at three o'clock.
through
через , сквозь
  • The railway runs through a tunnel.
ticket
билет
  • The airline company sent us e-tickets yesterday.
time
время , раз
  • Time seemed to pass more quickly than before.
tired
уставший , усталый
  • She was too tired to do any more.
to
к, в , к, до (с минутами от 31 до 59) , к
  • She rushed to the phone.
today
сегодня
  • I'm working today.
  • Computers today are so sophisticated.
tomorrow
завтра
  • Are you going back home tomorrow?
  • They’re arriving tomorrow morning.
too
слишком , тоже , также
  • I was too excited to sleep.
top
топ , верх , вершина
  • I am looking for a top to match this skirt.
  • She waited for me at the top of the stairs.
towards
по направлению к , навстречу
  • She stood up and walked towards him.
town
город , городок
  • He was born in the small town of Castleford, in Yorkshire.
  • We stayed in the best hotel in town.
translate
переводить
  • We were asked to translate a list of sentences into English.
travel
путешествовать
  • I wish I didn't have to travel so much.
true
верный , правильный , настоящий , истинный
  • Her story is only partly true.
  • Would it be true to say that you've never liked Jim?
  • He was a true friend of mine.
try
пытаться , пробовать , стараться
  • I know she's not very helpful, but she does try.
twelfth
двенадцатый
  • Our next meeting is on the twelfth of May.
twelve
двенадцать
  • The cafeteria opens for lunch at twelve o'clock.
twenty
двадцать
  • There was space for twenty people.
twenty-one
двадцать один
  • There were twenty-one students in the class.
twenty-two
двадцать два
  • Twenty-two students passed the test last week.
two
два
  • They have two houses.
under
под
  • We took shelter under an oak tree.
understand
понимать , понять
  • If you don't understand, just put your hand up.
unfortunately
к сожалению , увы , жаль
  • Unfortunately, I didn't have my credit card with me, or else I would have bought it.
until
до тех пор как , до , вплоть до
  • James is expected to work here until Sunday.
up
вверх
  • He climbed up the steps.
upstairs
наверху , наверх , сверху
  • He heard glass breaking and ran upstairs to see what had caused it.
urgent
срочный
  • Many people are in urgent need of food and water.
us
нам , нас , нами
  • It wasn't our idea, so don't blame us.
use
употребить , использовать , воспользоваться
  • The old hospital isn't used any more.
used to
когда-то , прежде , раньше , привыкший
  • I used to spend summer holidays with grandparents when I was a kid.
usually
обычно
  • What time do you usually go to bed?
very
очень
  • The situation is very serious.
voice
голос
  • A strange voice answered the phone.
wait
ждать , ожидать
  • Sheryl said she'd be waiting in the lobby.
walk
гулять , ходить
  • Has your little boy learned to walk yet?
want
хотеть
  • We desperately want rain.
warm
тёплый
  • It was warm enough for us to sit outside.
wash
стирать , мыть
  • I've got to wash the clothes.
watch
часы , наручные часы
  • I adore different watches.
water
вода
  • From the hotel there's a beautiful view of the water.
way
способ , путь , дорога
  • I don't think this is the right way.
we
мы
  • We moved here soon after we were married.
  • We are happy to see you.
weather
погода
  • Unsettled weather will continue through the weekend.
week
неделя
  • He travels south two days a week.
well
хорошо , ну
  • The concert was advertised well enough but ticket sales were poor.
west
запад
  • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • Most of the region will be dry tomorrow, but the west will have some rain.
when
когда
  • When will we know our test results?
where
куда , где
  • Where does he live?
  • Where are we going?
which
который , какой
  • Choose any card – it doesn't matter which.
  • My car, which I have owned for five years, is a Ford.
  • They're all so pretty – I don't know which one to choose.
white
белый
  • Luke's face was white with anger.
who
который , кто
  • Who did this?
  • Who are all those people?
why
почему , зачем
  • Why wait? Let's leave now.
  • Why did you choose to live in London?
wife
жена
  • I'd better phone my wife and tell her I'll be late.
will
будет , станет
  • Clare will be five years old next month.
  • The train leaves at 8:58, so we'll be in Scotland by lunchtime.
winter
зима
  • We spend the winter in the south.
with
с , вместе с
  • Don't argue with me.
with pleasure
охотно , с удовольствием
  • "Would you mind holding the door open for me, please?" "Oh, with pleasure."
without
без
  • I left without my umbrella.
  • I couldn't have done it without you.
woman
женщина
  • She was a smiling young woman with dark hair.
wonderful
чудесный
  • There is a wonderful sea view from our hotel room.
word
слово
  • I was remembering the words of my old friend.
work
работать
  • I've been working in the garden all day.
world
мир , земля
  • We want to guarantee our children a safer world.
worried
обеспокоенный , взволнованный
  • She was sitting behind her desk with a worried look on her face.
  • They don't seem worried about the situation.
worry
беспокоиться , волноваться
  • Don't worry, she'll be all right.
worse
хуже
  • Some said they'd never seen a worse film.
  • The injury looked a lot worse than it really was.
worst
наихудший
  • The noise from the airport is worst at night.
  • It was the worst accident in the company’s history.
would
бы
  • James said he would never forgive her.
  • We realized it wouldn't be easy to find another secretary.
write
писать , записывать , выписывать
  • Emily is just learning to write.
  • He ought to have enough stories to write a book.
wrong
ошибочный , неверный , неправильный
  • Half of your test answers were wrong.
year
год
  • He lived in Paris for a few years.
yellow
жёлтый
  • It has pretty pale yellow flowers in early spring.
yes
да
  • Yes, I love it.
yesterday
вчера
  • I saw her yesterday afternoon.
  • Yesterday, we went to the zoo.
you
вы , ты
  • Do you like oranges ?
  • He wasn't very good-looking, but you could tell he thought he was.
young
молодой
  • Jenna is the youngest person in our family.
your
твоё , ваше , твой , твоя , твоё , ваш
  • You never really talk to your brother, do you?

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Планируете отправиться в путешествие или в будущем перебраться в англоязычную страну? Тогда важно будет подтвердить свои навыки английского. В этом помогут международные тесты.

Настоящее совершенное продолженное время в английском
Грамматика
Настоящее совершенное продолженное время в английском

Описание грамматического времени Present Perfect Continuous. Утверждения, отрицания и вопросы в примерах.